Chemistry of the Atmosphere: Field Experiment in Brazil​

Mission status: Completed

Persons in Charge


Jos Lelieveld (MPIC, Mainz)

Mission coordinator​

 Daniel Marno (MPIC, Mainz): +49-6131-305-4331, daniel [dot] marno [at] mpic [dot] de

Contact point at DLR-FX for this mission:

Thomas Sprünken (HALO Project Management): +49 8153 28 4314, thomas [dot] spruenken [at] dlr [dot] de

HALO Deployment Base

Time Period

From September 2022 – To February 2023

Mission PhaseDates
Preparation, Payload Integration, EMI Testing26 Sep - 29 Nov 2022
Mission Execution, Phase 130 Nov - 20 Dec 2022
Mission Execution, Phase 24 Jan - 29 Jan 2023
Dismounting of Payload30 Jan -3 Feb 2023

Project description

The Amazon, which represents about half the rainforest area on Earth (nearly 6 million km2), is of  major global environmental significance, for example, by producing much of the oxygen present in the atmosphere. It has large impacts on the water and carbon cycles, and a stabilizing influence on the climate.

The main objective of CAFE-Brazil is to study tropospheric oxidant photochemistry in combination with particle formation and growth mechanisms under clean, pristine conditions over the Amazon rainforest, and contrast the results with those in marine and polluted conditions, in part from previous measurement campaigns. The measurements will constrain process and environmental modelling to generalize the results to regional and global scales, e.g. to study the atmospheric oxidation capacity and the abundance of fine particulate matter in relation to climate and planetary health. CAFE-Brazil will employ the German HALO research aircraft from Manaus in winter 2022/23. It will investigate how biogenic VOC emissions influence oxidation chemistry at low NOx concentrations, radical cycling, and how and where in the tropospheric column this relates to aerosol formation, growth, i.e. particle size and number distribution and chemical composition. The HALO measurements will be coordinated with those from the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), located near Manaus at a remote location within the forest. A similar set of instrumentation as that deployed on HALO is installed on the ATTO tower. This will provide the unique opportunity to link the measurements in and directly above the forest to aerosol and oxidation processes in the atmosphere aloft. 

Conceptual model of the aerosol life cycle over the Amazon Basin (Andreae et al., 2018)


    • Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (MPIC)
    • Goethe University Frankfurt
    • Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS)
    • Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZ Jülich)
    • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
    • University of Sao Paulo
    • Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais

Scientific instruments and payload configuration

  • List of scientific instruments for the mission:

TRIHOPTotal peroxides, H2O2, CO, HCHO, CH4Horst FischerMPIC
PTR-MS TOFOVOC Jonathan WilliamsMPIC
LIF-SO2SO2Hartwig HarderMPIC
C-ToF-AMSAerosol composition (non-refractory)Johannes SchneiderMPIC
CI-APiTOF MSH2SO4, HOMs, MSA, amines, clustersJoachim CurtiusUniv. Frankfurt
CCN RackCCN, BC, aerosol impactorMira PöhlkerTROPOS
FASDAerosol number and size distributionMira PöhlkerTROPOS
HALO-SRActinic FluxBirger BohnFZ Jülich
FAIROO3Andreas ZahnKIT
BAHAMASP, T, wind, humidity, TAS, position, alt., H2O mixing ratio (gas phase) Andreas GiezDLR-FX

HALO flights for this mission

Aircraft registrationDateTake off - Landing / UTTotal flight time / hFrom - ToMission #
D-ADLR2022-11-1610:45 - 13:483.23EDMO-EDMORF00
D-ADLR2022-11-2210:29 - 14:244.05EDMO-EDMORF01
D-ADLR2022-11-2507:57 - 12:454.95EDMO-EDMORF02
D-ADLR2022-11-3009:57 -16:076.43EDMO-GVACRF03
D-ADLR2022-12-0115:12 - 21:516.88GVAC-SBEGRF04
D-ADLR2022-12-0412:32 - 20:248.23SBEG-SBEGRF05
D-ADLR2022-12-0714:22 - 22:498.80SBEG-SBEGRF06
D-ADLR2022-12-0915:25 - 00:038.90SBEG-SBEGRF07
D-ADLR2022-12-1111:58 - 20:148.53SBEG-SBEGRF08
D-ADLR2022-12-1411:19 - 19:068.13SBEG-SBEGRF09
D-ADLR2022-12-1616:11 - 00:268.57SBEG-SBEGRF10
D-ADLR2022-12-1914:34 - 21:547.73SBEG-SBEGRF11
D-ADLR2023-01-0614:45 - 23:389.18SBEG-SBEGRF12
D-ADLR2023-01-0820:23 - 05:279.25SBEG-SBEGRF13
D-ADLR2023-01-1213:55 - 22:098.47SBEG-SBEGRF14
D-ADLR2023-01-1411:58 - 20:489.03SBEG-SBEGRF15
D-ADLR2023-01-1703:39 - 12:399.33SBEG-SBEGRF16
D-ADLR2023-01-1812:18 - 21:439.77SBEG-SBEGRF17
D-ADLR2023-01-2119:26 - 04:018.90SBEG-SBEGRF18
D-ADLR2023-01-2308:47 - 18:5110.35SBEG-SBEGRF19
D-ADLR2023-01-2608:48 - 18:3810.17SBEG-SBEGRF20
D-ADLR2023-01-2809:34 - 15:356.30SBEG-GVACRF21
D-ADLR2023-01-2909:54 - 16:086.42GVAC-EDMORF22

More information

Press releases, media etc